2017 – 2021 – Bolivar Waste Water Treatment Plant (South Australia) – PFAS, PFOS, Fluorotelomer Sulfonic Acid (various)

A mass estimate of perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) release from
Australian wastewater treatment plants

Chemosphere 208 (2018) 975e983
C. Gallen a, *, G. Eaglesham a, D. Drage b, T. Hue Nguyen a, J.F. Mueller a

4. Conclusions
PFAS were ubiquitously detected in Australian wastewater and biosolids samples. At 11 of 14WWTPs, effluent PFAS concentrations exceeded concentrations in the influent by an average of almost 10 times, a likely result of the degradation of precursor chemicals during the treatment process. To date, there have been no studies investigating the identities of PFAS-precursors present in Australian WWTPs. For three of the nine studied PFAS, only a relatively
small proportion (an average of 1% or less of the total loads discharged from the participating WWTPs) are removed to the biosolids, with the majority of the load released in the effluent. As PFAS chain length increased, the proportion of PFAS loads contained within the biosolids increased. PFAS concentrations were shown to vary widely between individual WWTPs, suggesting that WWTPs may be a useful means to identify PFAS-use ‘hotspots’ as well as
cost effectively assessing changes in PFAS use, human exposure and environmental release over time. While many known point sources of PFAS such as airports are under scrutiny and undertaking remediation, WWTPs remain ongoing and largely unregulated sources. Despite the successful elimination of most PFOS and PFOA products from large-scale use, the use of other PFAS-containing products appears to be continuing in Australia. The resistance to degradation processes together with typically long service lives of the products that contain PFAS, means that the management of PFAS in Australian waste will be ongoing, potentially for decades.

Bolivar NAIS AWTP Product water

SA water are allowing PFAS detections of levels 30 ng in the recycled water to irrigate edible crops at Bolivar . Any surplus recycled water from the Bolivar WWTP is stored in aquifer for reuse for irrigation at a later date.

03/07/2020: PFOA 0.01ug/l

03/07/2020: PFOS 0.02 ug/l

3/7/2020: Sum PFAS (WA DER) list 0.03 ug/l

03/07/2020: Sum of PFAS 0.03 ug/l

03/07/2020: Sum of PFHxS + PFOS 0.02 ug/l

Bolivar Waste Water Treatment Plant

Bolivar Daff Filtered Water After Chlorine Composite (Testing SA Water?)

16-Mar-17: 10:2 Fluorotelomer Sulfonic acid 0.05µg/L, 4:2 Fluorotelomer Sulfonic acid 0.05µg/L, 6:2 Fluorotelomer Sulfonic acid 0.05µg/L, 8:2 Fluorotelomer Sulfonic acid 0.05µg/L, Perfluorooctane Sulfonic acid (PFOS) 0.02 µg/L, Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) 0.01µg/L

Bolivar WWTP No 1 Weir Effluent Upstream (Testing SA Water?)

21-Mar-17: 10:2 Fluorotelomer Sulfonic acid 0.05µg/L, 4:2 Fluorotelomer Sulfonic acid 0.05µg/L, 6:2 Fluorotelomer Sulfonic acid 0.05µg/L, 8:2 Fluorotelomer Sulfonic acid 0.05µg/L, Perfluorooctane Sulfonic acid (PFOS) 0.04µg/L, Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) 0.01µg/L

Source: SA Water

Bolivar WWTP Lagoon Influent

19/9/19: PFHpA 0.002ug/L, PFHxA 0.025ug/L, PFHxS 0.015 ug/L,  PFOA 0.007 ug/L, PFOS 0.017 ug/L, PFPeA 0.006 ug/L, Sum of PFAS 0.072 ug/L, Sum of PFHxS +PFOS 0.032 ug/L, Sum of PFAS (WA DER List) 0.072ug/L

29/10/2019: PFHxA 0.017ug/L, PFHxS 0.016 ug/L, PFOA 0.008 ug/L, PFPeA 0.010 ug/L, PFOS 0.020 ug/L, Sum of PFAS 0.071 ug/L, Sum of PFAS (WA DER List) 0.071ug/L, Sum of PFHxS + PFOS 0.036 ug/L

28/4/2020: PFHxA 0.011 ug/L, PFHxS 0.008 ug/L, PFOA 0.012 ug/L, PFOS 0.017 ug/L, PFPeA 0.010 ug/L, Sum of PFAS 0.058 ug/L, Sum of PFAS (WA DER List) 0.058ug/L, Sum of PFHxS +PFOS 0.025 ug/L

21/6/2020: PFHpA 0.002ug/L, PFHxA 0.010 ug/L, PFHxS 0.014 ug/L, PFOA 0.011 ug/L, PFOS  0.016 ug/L, PFPeA 0.009 ug/L, Sum of PFAS 0.062 ug/L, Sum of PFAS (WA DER List) 0.062ug/L, Sum of PFHxS +PFOS 0.030 ug/L

6/3/2021: PFBS 0.021ug/L, PFHxA 0.007ug/L, PFOS 0.018ug/L, PFHxS 0.008 ug/l, PFOA 0.006ug/L, PFPeA 0.007ug/L, Sum of PFAS 0.067ug/L, Sum of PFAS (WA DER List) 0.067ug/L, Sum of PFHxS + PFOS   0.026ug/L

5/5/2021: PFBS 0.031ug/L, PFHxA 0.013ug/L, PFHxS 0.005 ug/l, PFOA 0.009ug/L, PFOS 0.012ug/L, PFPeA 0.007ug/L, Sum of PFAS 0.068ug/L, Sum of PFAS (WA DER List) 0.068ug/L, Sum of PFHxS + PFOS  0.013ug/L

9/6/2021: PFHxA 0.02ug/L, PFHxS 0.005 ug/L, PFPeA 0.011ug/L, Sum of PFAS 0.057ug/L, Sum of PFAS (WA DER List) 0.057ug/L, Sum of PFHxS + PFOS 0.017ug/L

17/6/2021: PFHxA 0.01ug/L, PFHxS 0.005 ug/L, PFOA 0.008ug/L, PFOS 0.009ug/L, PFPeA 0.008ug/L, Sum of PFAS 0.04ug/L, Sum of PFAS (WA DER List) 0.04ug/L, Sum of PFHxS + PFOS 0.014ug/L

24/6/2021: PFBS 0.038ug/L, PFHpA 0.003ug/L, PFHxA 0.02ug/L, PFHxS 0.012 ug/L, PFOA 0.009ug/L, PFOS 0.019ug/L, PFPeA 0.009ug/L, Sum of PFAS 0.11ug/L, Sum of PFAS (WA DER List) 0.11ug/L, Sum of PFHxS + PFOS 0.031ug/L

Bolivar Waste Water Treatment Plant
Recycled Water DAFF after Chlorine (RMIT samples)

22 March 2017
PFBA 25.6 ng/l, PFPeA 6.7ng/l, PFBS 3.4ng/l, PFHxA 17.6, PFPeS 2.7ngl, PFHpA 4.3ng/l,
PFHxS 12.5ng/l, 6.2 FTS 11ng/l, PFAO 7.8ng./l, PFHpS 1.1mg/l, PFNA 1.7ng/l,
PFOS 17.8ng/l, PFDA 1.8ng/l.

8 June 2017 RMIT
PFBA 6.5ng/l, PFPeA 3.7ng/l, PFBS 4.8ng/l, PFHxA 15.1ng/l, PFPeS 1.2ng/l, PFHpA 4.7ng/l,
PFHxS 10.9ng/l, 6.2 FTS ng/l,6.5, PFAO 8.7ng/l, PFOS 6.8ng/l.

31 August 2017
PFBA 11.2ng/l, PFPeA 9.8ng/l, PFBS 2.6ng/l, PFHxA 20ng/l, PFPeS 1.6,ng/l, PFHpA 7.2ng/l,
PFHxS 8.9ng/l, 6.2 FTS 6.2ng/l, PFAO 8.2ng/l, PFNA 0.5ng/l, PFOS 6.7ng/l, PFDA 0.3ng/l.

11 December 2017
PFBA 8.6ng/l, PFPeA 10.2ng/l, PFBS 2.6ng/l, PFHxA14.4ng/l, PFPeS 1.3ng/l, PFHpA 6ng/l,
PFHxS 11.7ng/l, 6.2 FTS 5.9ng/l, PFAO 7ng/l, PFHpS 0.5ng/l, PFNA 0.4ng/l, PFOS 8.1ng/l,
PFDA 0.6ng/l,