2017 October: RAAF Base Edinburgh- Off Site (South Australia) – Wheat

RAAF Base Edinburgh- Off Site Appendix Tables**

Extract Table 16: Property 6. Biota Samples 17/10/2017

Location ID                  Wheat PFBA


Bi002 Flower 0.0008
Stem 0.0009
Bi003 Stem 0.0008
Bi004 Flower 0.0006
Stem 0.0007
Bi005 Flower 0.0006
Stem 0.0006
Bi007 Flower 0.0007
Stem 0.0007
Bi008 Stem 0.0005
Bi009 Stem 0.0006

**Source Report by JBS&G Australia Pty Ltd: Department of Defence RAAF Base Edinburgh Environmental Investigation of PFAS Detailed Site Investigation

11 December 2018 52234/117,720 (Rev 0)

Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in garden produce at homes with a history of PFAS-contaminated drinking water

Chemosphere Volume 196, April 2018, Pages 548-555


Deanna P. Scher, James E. Kelly, Carin A. Huset, Kitrina M. Barry, Richard W. Hoffbeck, Virginia L. Yingling, Rita B. Messing

Minnesota Department of Health, Saint Paul, MN, United States


  • PFAS in garden produce were measured at homes with past/ongoing water contamination.
  • Short-chain PFAS in water impacted produce levels more than long-chain PFAS in soil.
  • PFAS concentrations differed by plant part; many PFAS were highest in florets.
  • Results demonstrate PFAS entry into food chain under real-world conditions.


The decades-long disposal of manufacturing waste containing perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in landfills https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/landfill

resulted in contamination https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/contamination of groundwater https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/groundwater serving as the drinking water supply https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/drinking-water-supplyfor the eastern Twin Cities metropolitan region. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/region

While measures were taken to reduce the levels of PFAS in the drinking water  https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/drinking-water , questions remained about possible non-drinking water pathways of exposure in these communities. The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) investigated whether PFAS in water used for yard and garden irrigation https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/irrigation results in elevated concentrations of PFAS in soil and home-grown produce.

In 2010, samples of outdoor tap water, garden soil, and garden produce were collected at homes impacted by the contamination and analyzed for several PFAS. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was the primary PFAS present in water, followed by perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA). Although PFBA, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/sulfonate

(PFOS) were present in 100% of soil samples at higher concentrations compared to other PFAS, only PFBA was readily translocated to plants.

Significant determinants https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/determinant of PFBA concentration in produce were the amount of PFBA applied to the garden via watering and the type of produce tested.

Results from this real-world study are consistent with experimental findings that short-chain PFAS have the highest potential to translocate to and bioaccumulate in edible plants. These findings are globally relevant, as short-chain PFAS serve as commercial substitutes for longer-chain compounds and are increasingly detected in water due to their relatively high solubility https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/miscibility and mobility..